Harvey Pitt and Karen Shapiro present a comprehensive review of the Securities and Exchange Commission's regulatory and enforcement activities during the past decade and discuss the use of ex post enforcement actions as a means of controlling the behavior of market participants. They note several dangers inherent in the use of enforcement actions to regulate behavior, such as the absence of sufficiently precise definitions of the prohibited activities and the lack of procedural safeguards associated with the formal rulemaking process. Because Pitt and Shapiro generally support comprehensive regulation of the financial markets, however, they stop short of raising a more fundamental concern-that the use of enforcement actions to define prohibited conduct short-circuits debate over whether the conduct should be regulated at all.
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different
formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format.
By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items.
To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export.
The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export.
After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format.