Half a generation ago the Supreme Court in Gideon v. Wainwright found the Sixth Amendment right to counsel "fundamental and essential to a fair trial." Mr. Justice Black, speaking for an unanimous Court, referred to lawyers as "necessities, not luxuries." He said the "noble ideal" of fair trials "cannot be realized if the poor man charged with crime has to face his accusers without a lawyer to assist him," and declared that "any person hauled into court, who is too poor to hire a lawyer, cannot be assured a fair trial unless counsel is provided for him." One might therefore have expected per curiam reversals, following Gideon, of criminal convictions where assistance of counsel was denied. Instead, several courts upheld such convictions for'misdemeanors, and the Court repeatedly denied certiorari.
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different
formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format.
By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items.
To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export.
The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export.
After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format.