• The Contracts Notes of Timothy Merwin: Earliest Evidence of Instruction at Yale Law School

      Stern, Peter (1996-01-01)
      This paper discusses the contracts notes of one of the first students at the Yale Law School. The notes were taken in 1828, making them the earliest known evidence of the method of instruction employed by the law school's founders.
    • Public Law and Legal Education in the Nineteenth Century: The Founding of Burgess' School of Political Science at Columbia

      Bator, Alexa (1996-10-01)
      This paper discusses the founding of the School of Political Science at Columbia University by John W. Burgess in 1880. Burgess established the political science school after failing in his attempts to introduce a program of coursework in political science and public law at Columbia's School of Law. He hoped that the new school would supplement the private-law curriculum of the law school, with the particular aim of preparing students for a career in public service.
    • The Student View of Yale Law School 1883-1912: The Shingle

      Arrigo, Maureen (1997-03-01)
      During one twenty-year period, the graduating students of Yale Law School published books in which their views of the school (and to a small extent the faculty's views as well) were captured. This series of books - The Yale Shingle - was published from 1893 to 1912. My goal in writing this paper is profile student life at Yale as reports in the Shingle. Its life spanned an important time in the school's history - a time of significant change.
    • Striving for Order: Zoning the City Elms

      Forbush, Christina (1997-05-09)
      In its historical perspective, zoning may be understood in two different ways: one a concept, the other a reality. Zoning as a concept was the planning ideal by which property and health could be protected, and cost of living could be reduced. The reality of has been a far different institution.
    • A Study of the Housing Patterns of Yale Law School Students

      Hayakawa, Masato (1999-10-01)
      In 1948, only about one-tenth of the law students lived in what we now term the law student ghetto. By 1997, more law students lived in this neighborhood than in any other - students in this neighborhood outnumbered students living in other off-campus neighborhoods by a margin of two-to-one, and they made up a simple majority of the enrollment. This paper examines the formation of this concentration. The evidence shows that the law student ghetto did no always exist in its current form, but rather that it is a product of housing developments of the last thirty years. This paper traces these developments. I discuss the demographic make-up of the student body, the housing distribution of the students, and events in New Haven or the wider world which affected either the demographics or the distribution. Because the Yale Law School is located in New Haven, this paper also examines the relationship between New Haven and Yale University, and the intertwined history of these two communities.
    • Solutions to an Urban Public Goods Problem: Business Improvement Districts in New Haven, Connecticut

      Jacobson, Nancy (2000-01-01)
      In downtown New Haven, the newest color is green. Festive green banners flutter from the lamp posts, welcoming visitors downtown. Along sidewalks, in window boxes, and in vestpocket parks, trees and plants flourish, with green leaves and bouquets of blossoms. On the sides of municipal buses, green placards boast the excited message "Do Downtown!" Members of a "Clean Team," dressed in distinctive fluorescent green jackets, sweep and steam-clean the sidewalks. Green bags covering parking meters on Saturdays and Sundays advertise free parking to weekend shoppers. The downtown is awash in glorious green.

      Levin, Daniel (2000-01-01)
      One and a half million Connecticut residents live closer to Tweed-New Haven Airport than any other commercial airport. Yet travelers today can reach only two other cities from New Haven and cannot take a jet flight. No other commercial airport in New England provides air service to fewer of its surrounding residents than Tweed-New Haven. Around the area, community and business leaders cite the lack of an adequate airport as a key roadblock in the economic development of New Haven.
    • The Relationship Between Yale's Law School and the Central University in the Late Nineteenth Century

      Bartholomew, Mark (2000-02-18)
      This paper describes the Yale Law School in the late 1800s. For most of the period, the school's faculty struggled to gain the attention of an unresponsive university administration. At the same time, the faculty pushed for interdisciplinary study that would tie the Law School to the university's other academic departments.
    • When Was The Yale Law School Really Founded?

      Sansbury, Michael (2001-05-17)
      In 1874, during the celebration of the Yale Law School's "Semicentennial Anniversary," Theodore Woolsey, a former Yale President and Professor at the Law School, claimed that the Law School had been founded in 1824 when a group of students were listed as "Law Students" in the Yale Catalogue. These students studied in a small proprietary law school started by Seth P. Staples and operated, in 1824, by Samuel J. Hitchcock and David Daggett. Their listing in the catalogue seems to indicate a connection between the Staples-Hitchcock-Daggett school and Yale College. Since 1874, Yale historians and the Yale Law School itself have designated this 1824 connection as a founding, though with some apparent hesitation. This Note examines fresh evidence about the origins of the Yale Law School, including the affiliation of the Staples school with Yale College. It begins by analyzing the documents on which the 1824 founding date is based. Using this evidence, along with biographies and obituaries of Yale students, I show that, in fact, students in the Staples school were listed prior to 1824 under the category of "Resident Graduates." After examining Harvard College Catalogues, I show that Harvard Law School students were also listed as "Resident Graduates" during its early period.
    • The Evolution of the Kangaroo: The History of Municipal Border Change in New Haven, Connecticut

      Glasgow, Joshua (2004-01-01)
      The borders of New Haven, Connecticut, like those of many other American cities, appear to be wildly irrational. Starting on the west side of New Haven harbor, the boundary follows the West River northward for slightly more than a mile, suddenly jogging west for two miles then continuing north and veering northeast. Before turning eastward, the line juts out to capture two oddly shaped protrusions in the northwest comer of the city. After traveling east for four miles the boundary banks 120° south to include a four mile-long, half-mile wide strip along the east side of the harbor. Somehow, New Haven has taken the shape of a pregnant kangaroo.
    • Persistent Localism: New Haven's Role in Intergovernmental Water Pollution Control and Sewage Treatment Programs

      Gelatt, Andrea (2005-01-01)
      The standarq story of environmental protection over the twentieth century is one of scattered successes with limited impact until the federal government took steps to solve the most pressing environmental issues. While significant problems remain, federal efforts often made substantial improvements in the nation's air quality and waterways. In the area of water policy before the Clean Water Act, most states had water pollution control programs funded by federal grants that did not successfully improve water quality. By the 1970s, the Americans were becoming more environmentally aware, and Congress realized that a new, more forceful effort was needed to address their concerns.
    • The Creation of Urban Homes: Apartment Buildings in New Haven, 1890-1930

      Liu, Emily (2006-01-01)
      In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, America experienced tremendous development and growth as the industrial revolution spurred on the national economy and transformed the social landscape. An important change was the shift of the population from a dispersed agrarian base towards concentrations in urban centers. The growth of cities marked not only a significant shift of population, but also the development of an entire culture and system around the concept of large-scale proximate living. While there is much literature on the factors leading up to the inward spiral, as well as the process of urban sprawl,[1] but much less is known about how American cities grew during this formative period and the housing that supported the population boom. Very little attention has been paid to the development of apartment housing, a novel architectural form that housed middle- to upper-class urban dwellers in the central city. This is the first study outside of New York City that traces the rise of the American apartment that came hand in hand with the rise of modern cities.[2] These new urban homes achieved great strides during this time period. As early as 1926, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the construction of apartments exceeded that of single-family dwellings in a representative group of 257 cities.[3] [1] See, e.g., Sam Bass Warner Jr., Streetcar Suburbs: The Process of Growth in Boston, 1870-1900 (1962) (seminal study of the division of cities into a central region of commerce and slums surrounded by commuter suburbs); Doug W. Rae, City: Urbanism and its End (2003) (analyzing why New Haven rose in the first half of the 20th century, and fell in the second half). [2] The example of New York City provides an interesting, but incomplete picture of the development of American urban housing. While it was the first American city to embrace apartments, the uniqueness of the city makes its story less comparable to other urban histories. See, e.g., Elizabeth Hawes, New York, New York: How the Apartment House Transformed the Life of the City (1869-1930) (1993); Elizabeth Collins Cromley, Alone Together: a History of New York’s Early Apartments (1990). [3] From 1921 to 1927, the percentage of families residing in apartments in the United States nearly doubled. Joseph H. Abel & Fred N. Severud, Apartment Houses 2 (1947).
    • No Place To Park: The Uneasy Relationship Between a City and its Cars

      Chen-Josephson, YiLing (2007-05-01)
      In 1951, Richard C. Lee, a man who was soon to become one of the most famous mayors in America, addressed “one of the major problems of [his] community” at a meeting of New Haven, Connecticut’s Democratic Town Committee: I cannot state too strongly that I consider this situation to be extremely serious…. [It] is sapping the lifeblood of our midtown business area and it takes little imagination to see how this, in a vicious progression, will gradually work against the well-being of all the other segments of our integrated community life.…New Haven is not alone in its disease. Nearly all large American cities have been afflicted….A situation which is hurting our downtown business life should and must be corrected; this is a basic essential to civic betterment, and all citizens will share in that betterment.[1] Lee was not talking about crime, unemployment, inflation, racial tensions, or the slums he would become known for razing and “redeveloping.” Instead, he was talking about parking. [1] Richard Lee, Remarks at the Democratic Town Committee Meeting (Aug. 16, 1951) (transcript available in the Yale University Library).
    • Racial Residential Integration in Greater New Haven in the Post-Civil Rights Era

      Terry, Tianna (2007-05-01)
      Equal housing opportunity for all people regardless of race has been the law in the United Statesfor almost forty years. Nevertheless, racial residential segregation persists. This paper examines the extent to which fair housing laws and institutions have met their goal of promoting racial residential integration in Greater New Haven, Connecticut. For the purposes of this paper, Greater New Haven is defined as the fifteen towns and cities that comprise the South Central Connecticut Regional Council of Governments,[1] which includes Bethany, Branford, East Haven, Guilford, Hamden, Madison, Meriden, Milford, New Haven, North Branford, North Haven, Orange, Wallingford, West Haven, and Woodbridge.[2] Part II examines racial demographic change in Greater New Haven from 1970 to 2000. In this section, I highlight the region’s population growth and increased racial diversity during this period, and analyze the extent of neighborhood racial integration in the area. I also present the results of a block-level analysis of the racially integrated neighborhoods inNew Haven,West Haven,Hamden, andMeridento determine the extent of racial mixing at a micro level. Finally, I evaluate the stability of racially integrated neighborhoods over the course of the thirty-year period. [1] The South Central Connecticut Council of Regional Governments (SCRCOG) is a consortium of local governments that convenes to coordinate land use and transportation development. South Central Connecticut Council of Regional Governments, Website Homepage, http://www.scrcog.org/index.htm. [2] See infra Appendix, Map 1.
    • Interdistrict School Choice: Clustering in Action?

      Siracusa, Benjamin (2007-05-01)
      Recent years have seen the rise of new public school options in many of America’s metropolitan areas.[1] Privately run charter schools, magnet schools that draw their attendees not only from different municipalities but also different neighborhoods, and open enrollment plans that allow children to attend school in another public school district entirely are changing the face of public education in America. The neighborhood public school, which long defined both the primary and secondary educational experience for most Americans, has become only one of many options available. [1] See Heritage Foundation, School Choice: Greater Opportunities in Education, http://www.heritage.org/research/education/schoolchoice/schoolchoice.cfm (last visited May 8, 2007) (discussing current status of school choice in each state); Heritage Foundation, School Choice: Types of School Choice, http://www.heritage.org/research/education/schoolchoice/typesofschoolchoice.cfm (last visited May 8, 2007) (detailing various forms of school choice).
    • Deal or No Deal: An Empirical Analysis of the Settlement Dynamics of Landlord-Tenant Disputes

      Lin, Jeffrey (2010-12-16)
      This paper seeks to combine three different strands of legal scholarship: the literature about the New Haven Housing Court, the alternative dispute resolution literature on the normative and positive dimensions of settlements, and the methodological practice known as docketology, which is the concept of mining court docket sheets for data. The focus of this paper will be on using data from the New Haven Housing Court docket sheets to empirically investigate how different factors influence the probability that a case is resolved via settlement rather than through litigation to final a judgment.
    • Financing Innovation: Infrastructure Development In New Haven, 1750-1850

      Schmidt, Thomas (2010-12-17)
      The nineteenth century was a time of astonishing change in technologies of transportation. When the Constitution was ratified, to travel from New Haven to Hartford would require an arduous and uncertain trip on a rough road that could span more than a day. At the start of the twentieth century, railroads conveyed thousands of people daily along that route in a few hours, and the first automobiles were motoring over roads. The great progress in infrastructure development radically transformed the commercial, physical, and cultural landscape of America. This transformation required great mobilizations of capital and human labor, which, in turn, were dependent upon a variety of institutions: corporations, banks, courts to enforce contracts, regulatory bodies, and more. Behind the physical infrastructure of America lies a legal and institutional infrastructure which enables change even as it responds to it. This paper will explore the development of this more abstract infrastructure. Beginning in the late eighteenth century, business organizations and transactional structures progressed rapidly as they supported physical and economic development of the country. Vast mobilizations of energy and capital had to be coordinated; law served this function. Through a series of case-studies from New Haven the paper will consider the role of law in the development of the young nation.
    • Diffuse Aspirations: Mixed-Income Housing in the Context of For-Profit Urban Revitalization

      Miller, Christopher (2011-05-01)
      This paper evaluates the success of mixed-income housing in the context of a for-profit development in New Haven, Connecticut. It takes as its sample the development and the tenants of The Residences at Ninth Square, a mixed-use, mixed-income apartment complex located in the center of the historic city. The early parts of the paper (Parts II-III) tell the story of the neighborhood and contextualize the study in the geography and the history of New Haven, Connecticut. Part IV describes the development in detail. Part V looks to the expectations and commitments undertaken by the developers of The Residences. Part VI recounts the threats of failure voiced by contemporary critics. Part VII evaluates the success of the project in meeting those expectations and avoiding those threatened pitfalls by considering the success of the development, both financially, and as a form of urban revitalization. Part VIII evaluates the success of the project as a mixed-income development. It looks to the purposes of mixed-income housing, articulates the need for social interaction among tenants to achieve those purposes, and empirically examines the content and relation of those social interactions.
    • Driving us Crazy: A History and Analysis of New Haven’s Personal Property Taxes

      Lyle, Noelle (2011-05-01)
      On October 7, 2003, California Governor Gray Davis became the second Governor in American history to be recalled. Multiple factors contributed to his lack of popularity, from natural disasters to record budget shortfalls in the wake of the dotcom bust, but for many the tipping point came when he declared that he would be tripling California’s motor vehicle tax to shore up the state’s budget. Most of Davis’s challengers pledged to repeal the increase. Tom McClintock, who came in third in the recall election and now serves as one of California’s Representatives, made lowering vehicle taxes the main focus of his campaign. Eventual winner Arnold Schwarzenegger made his feelings on the increase clear by dropping a wrecking ball onto a junker with the words “Davis Car Tax” spray painted onto the side. Governor Schwarzenegger reduced vehicle taxes down to their previous levels his first day in office.
    • Meaningful Community Participation in Land Use Decision Making Through Ad Hoc Procedures in New Haven, Connecticut

      Huizar, Laura (2011-05-02)
      The last few decades have seen efforts to develop community-based planning models and other mechanisms for increased community participation in the land use approval process. Community Benefits Agreements (CBAs), in particular, have risen in popularity across the nation as a tool for ensuring meaningful participation in development. Such agreements generally arise from direct negotiation between community groups and developers where community groups push to secure community benefits in exchange for support. At the same time, however, takings law doctrine may be shifting in a way that could dissuade cities from actively incorporating community groups into planning or negotiating with developers. Two Supreme Court decisions in the 1980s and 1990s, Nollan v. California Coastal Commissionand Dolan v. City of Tigard, imposed limits on how a municipality could exact benefits from a developer to guard against involuntary taking of property. In addition, states have increasingly enacted statutes curbing cities’ powers when it comes to exactions. To the extent that including community groups in negotiations between cities and developers could lead to involuntary takings claims by developers when those groups push for benefits, the shift in takings law may arguably encourage planning departments to avoid creating processes or mechanisms that actively involve community groups in this manner. Such a possibility invites analysis into how cities actually craft processes for community participation in land use decision making. This paper examines New Haven, Connecticut’s formal and informal mechanisms for community participation.